Steganography - The Technique

12:58 Amoeba Technologies 0 Comments

The word steganography is of Greek origin and means "concealed writing" from the Greek words steganos meaning "covered or protected", and graphei meaning "writing”, means covered or secret writing, and is a long-practiced form of hiding information. Steganography's intent is to hide the existence of the message, while cryptography scrambles a message so that it cannot be understood.

More precisely, ``the goal of steganography is to hide messages inside other harmless messages in a way that does not allow any enemy to even detect that there is a second secret message present.''1

Steganography includes a vast array of techniques for hiding messages in a variety of media. Among These methods are invisible inks, microdots, digital signatures, covert channels and spread-spectrum communications. Today, thanks to modern technology, steganography is used on text, images, sound, signals, and more.


In cryptography: This principle states that “the security of the system has to be based on the assumption that the enemy has full knowledge of the design and implementation details of the steganographic system”. The only missing information for the enemy is a short, easily exchangeable random number sequence, the secret key.

Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. Generally, messages will appear to be something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other cover text and, classically, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files. In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol. Media files are ideal for steganographic transmission because of their large size. As a simple example, a sender might start with an innocuous image file and adjust the color of every 100th pixel to correspond to a letter in the alphabet, a change so subtle that someone not specifically looking for it is unlikely to notice it.



We give some definitions common to the steganography field:

Cover medium: This is the medium in which we want to hide data, it can be an innocent looking piece of information for steganography, or some important medium that must be protected for copyright or integrity reasons.

Embedded message: This is the hidden message we want to put in the cover. It can be some data for steganography and some copyright informations or added content for digital watermarking.

Stegokey: This is represented by some secret information, which is needed in order to extract the embedded message from the stegomedium Stego-medium: This is the final piece of information that the casual observer can see.

We can define this simple formula:

Cover-medium + embedded-message = stego-message

Message is the data that the sender wishes to remain it confidential. It can be plain text, cipher text, the image, or anything that can be embedded in a bit stream such as a copyright mark, a covert communication, or a serial number. Password is known as stego-key, which ensures that only recipient who know the corresponding decoding key will be able to extract the message from a cover-object. The cover-object with the secretly embedded message is then called the Stego-object. Recovering message from a stego-object requires the cover-object itself and a corresponding decoding key if a stego-key was used during the encoding process. The original image may or may not be required in most applications to extract the message.


Legitimate Use

Steganographic techniques have obvious uses, some legitimate, some less so, and some are likely illegal. The business case for protection of property, real and intellectual is strong. The watermarking of digital media is constantly improving, primarily in an attempt to provide hardened watermarks or proof of ownership. Individuals or organizations may decide to place personal/private/sensitive information in steganographic carriers. Admittedly, there are usually better ways to manage this task. One can liken these applications to the use of a deadbolt lock on a door.

Illegal Use

Other uses for steganography range from the trivial to the abhorrent. There are claims (47) that
child pornography may be lurking inside innocent image or sound files. While this is entirely
possible, a search on the internet for confirmation of this claim was unsuccessful.
An annual report on High Technology crime (48) lists nine common types of computer crime:

·  Criminal communications
·  Fraud
·  Hacking
·  Electronic payments
·  Gambling and pornography
·  Harassment
·  Intellectual property offenses
·  Viruses
·  Pedophilia

In examining this list, one can identify several of these areas where steganography could be used, especially considering the broad term “criminal communications.”

Note: The blog has been prepared by referring the content available on web and Study

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Amoeba Technologies Core Team |
| 24 x 7 Support No: +91-8886516000



Triple bottom line and its significance

03:45 Amoeba Technologies 0 Comments

The triple bottom line refers to an extension of the criteria used to measure organizational success. Traditionally, business success (or failure) is measured in terms of its economic performance. A business is considered to be successful if it has generated a sufficient financial return from its investments, financing activities and operating activities. The triple bottom line takes into account three criteria for assessing organizational performance; economic, social and environmental.

The economic criteria can then be used to determine how much an organisation generates in monetary value. It can also be used to determine the net worth of the business at a given point in time.

The social performance of an organisation is somewhat more difficult to define and measure. The social criterion of the triple bottom line takes into account the impact that a business has on people within the business (employees) and people outside of the business (the community). 

Triple bottom line organizations aim to improve the environment where feasible, or at the very least, reduce and limit their negative impact on the environment. Organizations need to look at more than just obvious environmental issues (like pollution) and should consider the total life cycle impact of their products and services.

Triple bottom line reporting is becoming more widespread amongst both large and small organizations. Triple bottom line reporting makes business decisions and actions more transparent and allows people to gain a thorough understanding of a business' level of corporate social responsibility. The triple bottom line report also helps manager to assess and compare their performance across all three criteria against the business objectives and long term goals.

The conventional way to measure the success of a business is the bottom line. But the concept of a triple bottom line, where social and environmental factors are considered along with economic ones, is also getting a lot of attention.

Is this another business fad? Is it a new management technique like total quality management?

I see the triple bottom line as a way to think about yourself, your career, and your company. The essential challenge it poses to business leaders is to find a way to simultaneously please your investors and impress your grandchildren.

Triple bottom line thinking holds that a company should combine standard metrics of financial success with those that measure environmental stewardship and social justice. It is sometimes called the 3P approach -- People, Planet and Profits. In each case it requires thinking in three dimensions, not one.

Today, quantifiable environmental impacts include consumption of finite resources, water quality and availability, and pollution emitted. Social impacts include community health, worker safety, education quality, and diversity.

Why think this way? Why adopt such an approach?

It is argued by many that companies that factoring these impacts into their overall corporate balance sheets will be more successful because it delivers greater efficiency, makes them more competitive and sparks innovation -- all drivers of profitability over time.

We certainly don't measure the success of our families by how much money we have saved. Our family's health, our kid's education, and the amount of love and caring in our family, count as much, if not more, than our financial security. So why do we have to measure the success of our companies with only one metric?

Another concept often linked to triple bottom line is that of sustainability. We sometimes speak of adopting sustainable business practices or building sustainable businesses. But what does that really mean?

There is a strong argument that triple bottom line or building sustainable businesses creates more profitable and successful business. Pursuing environmental and social objectives doesn't have to be at the expense of financial objectives and often is reinforcing.

Take the desire to reduce the environmental impact of a building for example. You could just lower the thermostat and make everyone a little more uncomfortable. Or you could do something better and install more efficient lighting. Or you could do something even better and rethink the entire building and design an integrated building that has better ventilation, better lighting, uses much less energy, and is more comfortable.

This is just the beginning. Businesses pursuing sustainability are becoming more efficient, more innovative, more connected, more profitable, and more competitive.

But as in most things, companies go through phases.

At first they tend to be defensive and focus on complying with regulations. When they move beyond that, they become tactical -- looking for ways to reduce waste and become more efficient in the way they do things.

In the next stage they start to think systematically. Here, a company begins to identify its position in the value chain and explore how their customers use their products and how they dispose of them. They will also explore their supply chain and find out where their raw materials come from and how much energy is used to make them. They will start thinking about their own factories and find ways of using new manufacturing process that use less energy.

We can start to make our companies more efficient or wait until costs rise. We can redesign our products for a more sustainable world or we can try to catch up later. We can wait until our customers or the government ask us to report our carbon footprint or we can volunteer it now.

Calculating the TBL

The 3Ps do not have a common unit of measure. Profits are measured in dollars. What is social capital measured in? What about environmental or ecological health? Finding a common unit of measurement is one challenge.

Some advocate monetizing all the dimensions of the TBL, including social welfare or environmental damage. While that would have the benefit of having a common unit—dollars—many object to putting a dollar value on wetlands or endangered species on strictly philosophical grounds. Others question the method of finding the right price for lost wetlands or endangered species.

Another solution would be to calculate the TBL in terms of an index. In this way, one eliminates the incompatible units issue and, as long as there is a universally accepted accounting method, allows for comparisons between entities, e.g., comparing performance between companies, cities, development projects or some other benchmark.

Who Uses the Triple Bottom Line?

Businesses, nonprofits and government entities alike can all use the TBL.


The Triple Bottom Line concept developed by John Elkington has changed the way businesses, nonprofits and governments measure sustainability and the performance of projects or policies. Beyond the foundation of measuring sustainability on three fronts—people, planet and profits—the flexibility of the TBL allows organizations to apply the concept in a manner suitable to their specific needs.

There are challenges to putting the TBL into practice. These challenges include measuring each of the three categories, finding applicable data and calculating a project or policy's contribution to sustainability. These challenges aside, the TBL framework allows organizations to evaluate the ramifications of their decisions from a truly long-run perspective.

It’s no secret our world and business environments are always changing. More than ever, sustainability is key to giving you a competitive edge in today’s economy—financially, environmentally, and socially.


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Amoeba Technologies Core Team | | 24 x 7 Support No: +91-8886516000


Top 10 Qualities of a Good Engineer

02:10 Amoeba Technologies 1 Comments

                                                    Top 10 Qualities of a good engineer

Engineers, let it be software, hardware, civil, or any other field, are accountable to own fantastic innovations and solutions the society can depends upon.

Everything from MRI and CT scan machines, Machine Learning solutions to develop auto pilot system to robust bridges requires a smart and diligent work from engineers. Therefore to be a successful engineer, one should have certain qualities and to name a few, below are the top 10 qualities:

1.      Strong Analytical & Aptitude: A fantastic engineer should have an excellent analytical skills and they continually investigate things and put their thoughts help things work better.

2.      Attentiveness: A great engineer pays thorough consideration to the minutest of the detail. As the slightest error can cause an entire system to fail, so every detail must be reviewed and examined thoroughly during the course of the project.

3.      Excellent Communication: A successful engineer always have a great communication skills. They translates complex technical jargons into plain English and also communicate effectively with the clients and colleagues working together on a project to have a crystal clear communication, understanding and expectation setting.

4.      Continuing Learning: One thing is constant in technology and that is change and these days technology is changing very rapidly. Therefore, a great engineer stays on the top of new developments, research and innovations in the industry.

5.      Out of Boundary thinking: A successful engineer is creative enough to think of new and innovative ways to develop the systems and make existing solutions work more efficiently.

6.      Logically thinking: A great engineer has top-notch logical and analytical skills. They sense the complexity of the solution and understand how to make things perfectly fine.

7.      Mathematically Inclined: An effective engineer has excellent mathematical skills as engineering is a complex science that involves multipart calculations of varying difficulty to come to a conclusive result.

8.      Good Problem Solving Skills: A superb engineer has sharp problem solving skills. Engineers are frequently called upon to address critical problems, and it is a must for them to figure out where the problem lies, its origin and a quick permanent solution.

9.      Good Team Player: An effective engineer understands that they are a part of a larger team working together to make one project successful, and therefore, must jell up and work as in one team and at the same time develop healthy working environment for others.

10.   Excellent Technical Knowledge: High technical skills is nonnegotiable for a successful engineer. It is a must for them to own a vast amount of technical knowledge to understand a variety of programs and systems that are generally used during an engineering project.

Thanks and regards,
Amoeba Technologies Core Team |
24 x 7 Support: +91-8886516000